AAVAD.COM

Washington, Timothy E. (Tim). (b. Los Angeles, CA, 1946; active Los Angeles, CA, 2010)
 

Bibliography and Exhibitions

MONOGRAPHS AND SOLO EXHIBITIONS:

GENERAL BOOKS AND GROUP EXHIBITIONS:

BAILEY, PETER.
Artists Portray a Black Christ.
1971.
In: Ebony 26, no. 6 (April, 1971):177-180, 5 color and 3 b&w illus. Includes: LeRoy Clarke, Murry Depillars, Alvin Hollingsworth, Omar Lama, Otto Neals, Timothy Washington, Douglas R. Williams. 4to, wraps.

CHICAGO (IL). Illinois Arts Council and Illinois Bell Telephone Lobby Gallery.
Black American Artists / 71.
1971-1972.
12 pp. catalogue of an important traveling exhibition circulated by the Illinois Arts Council and Illinois Bell; checklist of 136 works by 59 artists, 28 b&w illus., address list for many of the artists. Intro. and curated by Robert H. Glauber; statements by some of the artists on the topic of being a Black artist in 1971. Ralph Arnold, Sam Gilliam, Russell T. Gordon, Joseph B. Ross Jr., and by Edward K. Taylor (President of the Harlem Cultural Council.). Artists included in the exhibition: Benny Andrews, Ralph Arnold, Romare Bearden, Cleveland Bellow, Betty Blayton, Lynn Bowers, Vivian Browne, Robert Carter, Bernie Casey, LeRoy Clarke, Floyd Coleman, Dan Concholar, Dale Davis, Avel DeKnight, Richard Dempsey, David Driskell, Michael Esteves, Babatunde Folayemi, Sam Gilliam, Russell T. Gordon, David Hammons, Ben Hazard, Bill Howell, Raymond Howell, Manuel Hughes, Richard Hunt, Tonnie Jones, James DeWitt King, Jr., Jacob Lawrence, Leon Lank Leonard, Sr., Richard Mayhew, Geraldine McCullough, Charles McGee, Allie McGhee, Algernon Miller, Arthur Monroe, Keith Morrison, Ademola Olugebefola, Joe Overstreet, William Pajaud, Stephanie Pogue, Leslie Price, Noah Purifoy, Robert Reid, John T. Riddle, Gregory Ridley, Faith Ringgold, Joseph B. Ross, Jr., Raymond Saunders, John T. Scott, Vincent Smith, Alma Thomas, Timothy Washington, Charles White, Stanley Whitney, Walter J. Williams, Rip Woods, Kenneth Young, Milton Young. [Traveled to: Chicago, Illinois State Museum, Springfield (IL), Sloan Galleries, Valparaiso (IL), Peoria Art Guild, Peoria (IL), Burpee Gallery, Rockford (IL), Quincy (IL), Kalamazoo Institute of Arts, Kalamazoo [MI], University of Iowa Art Museum, Iowa City (IA), November 2, 1971-January 2, 1972, and perhaps other venues.] [Review: (Unattrib.) "Unknown black artists get chance to show their work," Jet (February 4, 1971):48-49, 4 b&w photos of artists and work.] 4to, stapled wraps. Individuated covers printed for at least two locations.

COLLINS, LISA GAIL and MARGO CRAWFORD, eds.
New Thoughts on the Black Arts Movement.
New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 2006.
402 pp., 40 illus., chapter notes, notes on contributors, index. Contributors include: Collins, Crawford, Kellie Jones, Mary Ellen Lennon, Erina Duganne, Cherise Smith, Lee Bernstein, and others. Includes: Billy (Fundi) Abernathy, Sylvia Abernathy, Muhammad Ahmad, Benny Andrews, Amiri Baraka, Camille Billops, Betty Blayton, Gloria Bohanon, Ed Brown, Margaret Burroughs, Elizabeth Catlett, Ben Caldwell, Dana Chandler, Edward Christmas, Dan Concholar, Houston Conwill, Kinshasha Conwill, Robert Crawford, Alonzo Davis, Dale Davis, Roy DeCarava, Murry Depillars, Dj. Spooky (Paul D. Miller), Jeff Donaldson, Emory Douglas, Louis Draper, David Driskell, Melvin Edwards, Albert Fennar, Reginald Gammon, Ray Gibson, Sam Gilliam, Tyree Guyton, David Hammons, Maren Hassinger, James Hinton, Richard Hunt, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Suzanne Jackson, Jacob Lawrence, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Tom Lloyd. Clarence Major, Edward McDowell, Dindga McCannon, Senga Nengudi, John Outterbridge, Joe Oversotree, Gordon Parks, Judson Powell, Noah Purifoy, Sr., Herbert Randall, Betye Saar, Beuford Smith, Marvin Smith, Morgan Smith, Edward Spriggs, SUN RA, Curtis Tann, Askia Touré, James Vanderzee, Ruth Waddy, Bill Walker, Timothy Washington, Charles White, Randy Williams, William T. Williams, Deborah Willis, and Hale Woodruff. The texts explore the racial and sexual politics of the era, links with other contemporaneous cultural movements, prison arts, the role of Black colleges and universities, gender politics and the rise of feminism, color fetishism, photography, and more. 8vo (26 x 18 cm.; 9.9 x 7.1 in.), cloth, d.j.

COOKS, BRIDGET R.
Exhibiting Blackness: African Americans and the American Art Museum.
Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2011.
240 pp., color illus., notes, index. The narrative begins in 1927 with the Chicago "Negro in Art Week" exhibition, and in the 1930s with the Museum of Modern Art's exhibition of "William Edmondson" (1937) and "Contemporary Negro Art" (1939) at the Baltimore Museum of Art; the focus, however, is on exhibitions held from the 1960s to present with chapters on "Harlem on My Mind" (1969), "Two Centuries of Black American Art" (1976); "Black Male" (1994-95); and "The Quilts of Gee's Bend" (2202). Numerous artists, but most mentioned only in passing: Cedric Adams, Charles Alston, Emma Amos, Benny Andrews, Edward M. Bannister, Richmond Barthé, Romare Bearden, numerous Bendolphs (Annie, Jacob, Mary Ann, Mary Lee, Louisiana) and Loretta Bennett, Ed Bereal, Donald Bernard, Nayland Blake, Gloria Bohanon, Leslie Bolling, St. Clair Bourne, Cloyd Boykin, Kay Brown, Selma Burke, Bernie Casey, Roland Charles, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Claude Clark, Linda Day Clark, Robert Colescott, Dan Concholar, Emilio Cruz, Ernest Crichlow (footnote only), Alonzo Davis, Selma Day (footnote only), Roy DeCarava, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Robert M. Douglass, Jr., David Driskell, Robert S. Duncanson, William Edmondson, Elton Fax (footnote only), Cecil L. Fergerson, Roland Freeman, Meta Vaux Warrick Fuller, Reginald Gammon (footnote only), K.D. Ganaway, Sam Gilliam, David Hammons, William A. Harper, Palmer Hayden, Vertis C. Hayes, Barkley L. Hendricks, James V. Herring, Richard Hunt, Rudy Irwin, May Howard Jackson, Suzanne Jackson, Joshua Johnson, William H. Johnson, Lois Mailou Jones, Gwendolyn Knight, Wifredo Lam, Artis Lane, Jacob Lawrence, Edmonia Lewis, Norman Lewis, Samella Lewis, Alvin Loving (footnote only), William Majors (footnote only), Richard Mayhew, Reginald McGhee, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Richard Mayhew, Willie Middlebrook, Ron Moody, Lottie and Lucy Mooney, Flora Moore, Scipio Moorhead, Norma Morgan, Archibald J. Motley, Jr., Sara Murrell (footnote only), Otto Neals (footnote only), Odili Donald Odita, Noni Olubisi, Ademola Olugebefola, John Outterbridge, Gordon Parks, six Pettways (Annie E., Arlonzia, Bertha, Clinton, Jr., Jesse T., Letisha), James Phillips, Howardena Pindell, Horace Pippin, Carl Pope, James A. Porter, Nancy Elizabeth Prophet, Noah Purifoy, Martin Puryear, Okoe Pyatt (footnote only), Robert Reid (footnote only), John Rhoden, John Riddle, Faith Ringgold (footnote only), Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders (footnote only), Augusta Savage, William E. Scott, Georgette Seabrook, James Sepyo (footnote only), Taiwo Shabazz (footnote only), Gary Simmons, Lorna Simpson, Merton Simpson (footnote only), Albert Alexander Smith, Arenzo Smith, Frank Stewart, Henry Ossawa Tanner, Alma Thomas, Danny Tisdale, Melvin Van Peebles, James Vanderzee, Annie Walker, Kara Walker, Augustus Washington, Timothy Washington, Carrie Mae Weems, James Lesesne Wells, Charles White, Pat Ward Williams, William T. Williams, Deborah Willis, Fred Wilson, Ernest C. Withers, Beulah Ecton Woodard, Hale Woodruff, Lloyd Yearwood, Annie Mae and Nettie Pettway Young. 8vo (9 x 6 in.), wraps.

HUNT, DARNELL and ANA-CHRISTINA RAMON, eds.
Black Los Angeles: American Dreams and Racial Realities.
New York: NYU Press, 2010.
448 pp., 43 illus. (but this is not a photo book), introduction and 16 wide-ranging scholarly texts on Black Los Angeles history and culture, bibliog., index. Includes a chapter on Black Art in Los Angeles by Paul Von Blum (pp. 243-265) which does not add any new information to Von Blum's earlier more extensive publication or the heavily researched exhibitions of 2004-5. Mentions: Richmond Barthé, Ernie Barnes, Roland Charles, Dan Concholar, the Brockman Gallery, Alonzo and Dale Davis, Cecil Ferguson, David Hammons, Varnette Honeywood, Suzanne Jackson, Jacob Lawrence, Samella Lewis, John Outterbridge, William Pajaud, Noah Purifoy, John T. Riddle, Betye Saar, Roderick Sykes, Melvin Van Peebles, Ruth Waddy, Timothy Washington, Daryl Wells, Charles White, Paul R. Williams, Richard Wyatt and a few of the early exhibitions of the California African American Museum, founded in 1978. 8vo (8.6 x 5.9 in.), cloth.

Jones, Regina Nickerson & Richard Arlen Wyatt, Jr.
Visions of a Spirit.
N.p.(Los Angeles): N.d..
(12 pp.), 17 b&w illus. plus cover illus. Curated by Richard Wyatt, Jr. Published in conjunction with an undated survey exhibition (early seventies?) of Los Angeles based African American artists sponsored by "Soul Publications." The participants for this exhibition were Guillermo Anderson, Carroll Parrott Blue, James Borders, Bernie Casey, Dan Concholar, Houston Conwill, Vernell De Silva, Varnette P. Honeywood, Suzanne Jackson, Samella Lewis, Collie Lowe, John Outterbridge, Greg Pitts, Betye Saar, John Stinson, Ruth Waddy, Timothy Washington, LaMonte Westmoreland, Charles White (whose image is featured on the cover), Billy Dee Williams, Emmett Wyatt, Jr. and Richard Wyatt, Jr. Oblong 8vo, stapled pictorial wraps. First ed.

LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum.
19 Sixties: A Cultural Awakening Re-Evaluated, 1965-1975.
April 7-October 2, 1989.
63 pp. exhib. cat., 55 illus. (17 in color), bibliog. Text by Lizzetta Lefalle-Collins. The exhibition focuses on nine California artists who were part of the assemblage and collage aesthetic of the post-Watts riot decade: Alonzo Davis, David Hammons, Suzanne Jackson, Noah Purifoy, John Outterbridge, John Riddle, Betye Saar, Timothy Washington, Charles White, but dozens of other artists mentioned in the text. 4to (27 x 21 cm.), wraps. First ed.

LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum.
African American Artists in Los Angeles: A Survey Exhibition: Pathways (1966-1989).
January 13-April 2, 2005.
Part Two of the exhibition, Pathways, included artwork created between 1966 and 1989. Curated by Dale Brockman Davis. Included work by: Ron Adams, Jacqueline Alexander-Sykes, Tina Allen, Ernie Barnes, Sharon Barnes, Phoebe Beasley, Charles Bibbs, Melonee Blocker, David Bradford, Nathaniel Bustion, Bernie Casey, George Clack, Myko Clark, Avery Clayton, Dan Conchalar, Houston Conwill, Bill Crite, Alonzo Davis, Dale Brockman Davis, Ronn Davis, Charles Dickson, Gregory Edwards, Marion Epting, Frederic Eversley, Claude Fiddler, Melvino Garretti, David Hammons, Eugene Hawkins, Camille Higgins, Varnette Honeywood, Paul Houzell, Bernard Hoyes, Suzanne Jackson, James W. Jeffrey, Jr., Masud Kordofan (a.k.a. Greg Pitts), Artis Lane, Doyle Lane, Samella Lewis, Talita Long, Milton Loupe, Enrica Marshall, Yvonne Cole Meo, Willie Middlebrook, Howard Morehead, John Outterbridge, William Pajaud, Elliott Pinkney, Judson Powell, Noah Purifoy, Ramsess, John Riddle, Roho, Betye Saar, Raymond Saunders, John Simmons, Van Slater, Arenzo Smith, Asungi Smith, Donald R. Stinson, John Stinson, Roderick Sykes, Matthew Thomas, Teresa Tolliver, Yvonne Tucker, Ruth Waddy, Timothy Washington, Barbara Wesson, LaMonte Westmoreland, Charles White, Cynthia White, John Whitmore, Tyrone Whitmore, Stanley C. Wilson, Richard Wyatt, Milton Young. (Part Three - Fade was presented at the Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery in Barnsdall Art Park.)

LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum.
Common Ground.
January 21-June 1, 2008.
Group exhibition of twenty one contemporary African American and Latino artists whose pieces explore the complexity of Black/Brown relationships in Los Angeles and California at large. Included: Edgar Arceneaux, William Attaway, Milton Bowens, Dennis O. Callwood, Castillo, June Edmonds, Patrick "Pato" Hebert, Mildred Howard, Nery Gabriel Lemus, Samella Lewis, Dominique Moody, Andrés Montoya, John Outterbridge, Elliott Pinkney, José Ramírez, Favianna Rodríguez, Cindy Santos Bravo, Matthew Thomas, Timothy Washington, Carla Weber and Richard Wyatt.

LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum.
Inside My Head: Intuitive Artists of African Descent.
May 7-September 27, 2009.
Exhib. cat., illus. Group exhibition of 32 contemporary artists: Jaami Abdul-Khaliq Abdul-Samad, Donna Angers, Floyd Bell, Patricia Boyd, Angela Briggs, Tracy Brown, Yrneh Brown, Ron Carrington, Chukes, Cola, Madi Comfort, Charles Dickson, Graham Goddard, Deirdre Greene, Mamie Hansberry, Stephen Hardy, Sy Hearn, Elton Henderson, Ronald Jackson, Michael Massenburg, Bridgitte Montgomery, Dominique Moody, Anna Myatt, Rosalyn Myles, Eliott Pinkney, Noah Purifoy, Aydee Rodriguez, Toni Scott, Karen Seneferu, Malik Seneferu, Dorothy Elliott-Taylor, Teresa Tolliver, and Timothy Washington.

LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum.
Permanent Collection: New Acquistions.
March 18-July 29, 1990.
Group exhibition of newly acquired work. Includes: Bob Thompson [Untitled (Tree Lift) 1962); Robert H. Colescott (A Stroll Through the Neighborhood, 1980, as well as the watercolor diptych study for the painting]; John Wilson [Standing Woman, 1980); John T. Riddle [9 assemblage in ammunition box pieces from the 1973 Spirit versus Technology Series); Martin Puryear (She, 1979 and Her, 1979); Doyle Lane [9 untitled Vases, early to mid 1960s); Howardena Pindell [Festival, 1985); Frederick James Brown (After the Hunt, 1985); Ed Clark (Circular 2, 1987); Benny Andrews (Cherries, 1982); Romare Bearden (Mecklenburg Morning & Evening Sunrise, 1986, Prevalence of Ritual #1-5, 1974, In the Garden, 1979; Quilting Time, 1979); Marie E. Johnson Calloway (Hope Street, Church Mothers, 1984); Robert S. Duncanson (Italianate Landscape, 1855); Herbert Gentry (Carnival, 1985); David Hammons (The Door (Admissions Office), 1969, Skillets in the Closet, 1988); Noah Purifoy (The Sound of One Hand Clapping, 1988 shadow box assemblage, and Watts Riot, 1966); Betye Saar (Nine Mojo Secrets, 1971, Sambo's Banjo, 1971-2 and Floating Figure with Seven Spades, 1977); Carroll H. Simms (He's Got the Whole World in His Hands, 1984); Timothy Washington (Energy, 1970); John Outterbridge (Lift Every Voice and California Crosswalk (both from Ethnic Heritage Series), 1984 and 1979 respectively); Herman Kofi Bailey, Jr. (Homework, 1973); Edward M. Bannister (10 landscape pencil drawings); Maren Hassinger (Leaning, 1971 and Interlock, 1984); Richmond Barthé (Mary McLeod Bethune, 1940s); Jacob Lawrence (The Capture (Toussaint L'Ouverture series), 1987, Confrontation on the Bridge, 1975); Clementine Hunter (Pecan Pickers); and three paintings by Francois Turenne des Pres.

LOS ANGELES (CA). California African American Museum, 7+FIG Artspace.
The Member Artists of the California Artist Coalition of Los Angeles.
March 22-July 30, 2010.
Group exhibition of work by 23 members of the California Artist Coalition of Los Angeles. Included: Jaami Abdul-Samad, Donna Angers, Pat Boyd, Ben Caldwell, Lexie Cole, Raoul De La Sota, Charles Dickson, Donovan Dickson, Valena Broussard Dismukes, Artis Lane, David Lovejoy, Enoch Mack, Michael Massenburg, Richard Mayhew, Carol McCoy, Robert McMillon, John Outterbridge, Matthew Thomas, Teresa Tolliver, Richard Turner, Tim Washington.

LOS ANGELES (CA). California Museum of African American Art.
Place of Validation: Art and Progression.
September 29, 2011-April 1, 2012.
Group exhibition of work by over 84 artists. Funded as part of the Getty's Pacific Standard Time exhibitions, but without funding for a catalogue.

LOS ANGELES (CA). J. Paul Getty Museum.
Pacific Standard Time: Crosscurrents in LA Painting and Sculpture, 1945-1970.
2011.
352 pp., illus. Texts by Andrew Perchuk, Katherine Taft, Lucy Bradnock, Rani Singh, Ken D. Allen, Lisa Turvey, Donna Conwell, Glenn Phillips, Jane McFadden, et al. An extraordinary near-exclusion of African American artists from a purportedly comprehensive account of the development of art in Los Angeles during a critical 25 year period. Most of the artists listed here are included in one of four sentences: Ed Bereal, Dan Concholar, Alonzo and Dale Davis, Emory Douglas, Melvin Edwards, David Hammons, Suzanne Jackson, Ulysses Jenkins, Hughie Lee-Smith, Samella Lewis, Senga Nengudi, John Outterbridge, William Pajaud, Noah Purifoy, Betye Saar, Ruth Waddy, Timothy Washington, Charles White. Information on galleries and collections (including the Golden State Mutual Collection (51 lines, no illus. of the collection or important murals by Hale Woodruff.) 4to (11.7 x 9.2 in.), boards.

LOS ANGELES (CA). Jack Tilton Gallery.
L.A. Object and David Hammons Body Prints.
October 20-November 22, 2006; Book published in 2011.
300 pp. exhib. cat., approx. 350 color and 260 b&w images. The group exhibition of work from the 1960s and 1970s was held in 2006. Texts by Yael Lipschutz, Tobias Wofford, Kellie Jones, Dale Davis, Josine Ianco-Starrels, Steve Cannon, et al. Curated by Cecil Fergerson. Artists included: Ed Bereal, Nathaniel Bustion, Alonzo Davis, Charles Dickson, David Hammons, Daniel Larue Johnson, Senga Nengudi, John Outterbridge, Noah Purifoy, Betye Saar, Timothy Washington, Lamonte Westmoreland. [Review NYT, November 14, 2006.] Sq. 4to (27 x 28 cm.; 10.25 x 12.25 in.), papered boards. First ed.

LOS ANGELES (CA). Laband Art Gallery, Loyola Marymount University.
Gallery 32 and its Circle.
January 24-March 22, 2009.
Group exhibition of work by artists associated with Gallery 32, founded by Suzanne Jackson, an important Los Angeles alternative art gallery (1968-1970) exhibiting African American artists. Exhibition included: Gloria Bohanon, Nathaniel Bustion, Dan Concholar, Emory Douglas, Greg Edwards, David Hammons, Bob Heliton, Suzanne Jackson, Elizabeth Leigh-Taylor, Ron Moore, Senga Nengudi, John Outterbridge, John Riddle, Betye Saar, AR Smith, Jr., John Stinson, Roderick Sykes, Joe Van Ramp, Timothy Washington, Charles White.

LOS ANGELES (CA). Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
Los Angeles 1972: A Panorama of Black Artists.
February 8-March 19, 1972.
Exhib. cat., illus. Curated by Cecil Fergerson and Claude Booker who are generally acknowledged only as "Co-sponsored by the Black Arts Council." The first exhibition of black artists at LACMA included 51 artists. Text by Carroll Greene, Jr. Includes: Abdu, Eileen Anderson, Guillermo Anderson, Romare Bearden, Melonee Blocker, M. Alex Bowie, Nathaniel Bustion, Bernie Casey, Robert D'Hue, Jr., Charles E. Dickson, Ernest Leroy Herbert, David Hammons, John Outterbridge, Elliott Pinkney, Gregory Pitts, Noah Purifoy, John T. Riddle, Elmer Rivers, Betye Saar, Lyle Suter, Timothy Washington, LaMonte Westmoreland, Stanley Wilson, Fred R. Wilson, Richard Wyatt, et al. 8vo, wraps.

LOS ANGELES (CA). Los Angeles County Museum of Art (LACMA).
Three Graphic Artists: Charles White, David Hammons, Timothy Washington.
January 26-March 7, 1971.
14 pp. exhib. cat., 6 illus., photos, bibliog. Text by Joseph E. Young. Three African American artists working in Southern CA in the '70s whose work shares a commitment to political imagery. [Exhibition traveled to Santa Barbara Museum of Art, March 20-April 18, 1971.] Hammons's body prints have proven of particular interest to contemporary artists. These prints were made by physically laying himself against the paper with his body or clothing coated in margarine. The hard part for the artist was removing himself from the work: "When I lie down on the paper which is first placed on the floor, I have to carefully decide how to get up after I have made the impression that I want. Sometimes I lie there for perhaps three minutes or even longer just figuring out how I can get off the paper without smudging the image that I'm trying to print." (Young, p. 8.) Then the artist applied powdered pigments to the margerine impression, subsequently securing the pigmented image(s) with a fixative. For background information on why the exhibition was picketed, see interview with Cecil Ferguson (African-American Artists of Los Angeles: Cecil Ferguson, Tape Number: V, Side Two, June 3, 1991:214-216); http://content.cdlib.org/view?docId=hb7h4nb803&chunk.id=div00026&brand=oac&doc.view=entire_text.] 8vo (28 cm.), wraps. First ed.

LOS ANGELES (CA). Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery.
Civic Virtue: Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery and the Watts Towers Art Center 1950-1980.
2011.
144 pp. exhib. cat., approx 80 b&w and color illus. and photos, checklist, bibliog. Curated by Pilar Tompkins Rivas; texts by Suzanne Muchnic, Pilar Tompkins Rivas, Josine Ianco Starrels, D.J. Waldie, and an informative interview with John Outterbridge by Jeffrey Herr. Includes: Afrasne Asungi, Nathaniel Bustion, Dan Concholar, Dale Davis, Charles Dickson, Harry Drinkwater, David Hammons, Maren Hassinger, Ulysses Jenkins, Toni Love, Willie Middlebrook, Dominique Moody, Senga Nengudi, Noni Olabisi, John Outterbridge, Elliott Pinkney, Judson Powell, Noah Purifoy, John T. Riddle, Betye Saar, Timothy Washington, Charles White, Richard Wyatt. 4to (10 x 7.5 in.), self-wraps. First ed.

LOS ANGELES (CA). Los Angeles Municipal Art Gallery, Barnsdall Park.
Artist as Teacher.
Thru October 9, 1977.
Group exhibition of Charles White's former students, designed to accompany "Charles White: An American Experience." Included: Nathaniel Bustion, Alonzo Davis, David Hammons, Suzanne Jackson, Sam McCrary, Oliver Nowlin, Kent Twitchell, Timothy Washington, Glenn White, Richard Wyatt. [Review: Adrienne Rosenthal, "Charles White Paints Hope and Anger," Artweek 8 (October 1, 1977):4.]

LOS ANGELES (CA). M.J. Higgins Fine Art.
Black is Beautiful.
January 28-March 11, 2006.
Group exhibition. Included: Len Davis, Charles Dickson, Bernard Hoyes, Masud Kordofan (a.k.a. Greg Pitts), Overton Loyd, Michael Massenburg, John Outterbridge, Robin Strayhorn, Cary Sullivan, Matthew Thomas, Teresa Tolliver, Timothy Washington.

LOS ANGELES (CA). The Loft @ Liz's and California African American Museum.
Diverted Destruction VI.
2013.
The sixth in an annual series of found-object assemblage shows, this time co-curated by the California African American Museum. Included at CAAM: Dale Brockman Davis, Derrick Maddox, Richard Turner, Rosalyn Myles; at The Loft @ Liz's: Dale Brockman Davis, Charles Dickson, Doug Pearsall, Teresa Tolliver and Timothy Washington.

LOS ANGELES (CA). Watts Towers Art Center.
Five at the Towers.
May 1-12, 1986.
Group exhibition. Included: Timothy Washington and Lamonte Westmoreland.

LOS ANGELES (CA). Watts Towers Art Center.
The Watts Towers/50 Years Inspiring Art.
2009-January 17, 2010.
Group exhibition. Curated by Rosie Lee Hooks and Sarah L. Canon. Included: Cedric Adams, Joseph Beckles, David Brown, Alonzo Davis, Dale Brockman Davis, Charles E. Dickson, George Evans, Varnette P. Honeywood, Talita Long, Toni Love, Overton Loyd, Howard Marshall, Jr., Michael Massenburg, Willie Robert Middlebrook, Dominique Moody, John Outterbridge, Samuel Pace, William Pajaud, Elliott Pinkney, R. Judson Powell, Noah Purifoy, Akili-Casundria Ramsess, Betye Saar, Carlos Spivey, Curtis Tann, Timothy E. Washington, Charles White, Richard Wyatt, et al.

NEW YORK (NY). Jack Tilton Gallery.
Timothy Washington / Brenna Youngblood.
October 28-December 23, 2010.
Two-person exhibition.

NEW YORK (NY). Studio Museum in Harlem.
Eleven from California.
c.1972.
Exhib. flyer. Text by Noah Purifoy. Included: Gloria Bohanon, David Bradford, Don Concholar, Alonzo Davis, Dale Davis, Marion Epting, David Hammons, Marie Johnson, John Outterbridge, Noah Purifoy, Timothy Washington.

ST LOUIS (MO). St. Louis Public Library.
An index to Black American artists.
St. Louis: St. Louis Public Library, 1972.
50 pp. Also includes art historians such as Henri Ghent. In this database, only artists are cross-referenced. 4to (28 cm.)

THOMISON, DENNIS.
The Black Artist in America: An Index to Reproductions.
Metuchen: Scarecrow Press, 1991.
Includes: index to Black artists, bibliography (including doctoral dissertations and audiovisual materials.) Many of the dozens of spelling errors and incomplete names have been corrected in this entry and names of known white artists omitted from our entry, but errors may still exist in this entry, so beware: Jesse Aaron, Charles Abramson, Maria Adair, Lauren Adam, Ovid P. Adams, Ron Adams, Terry Adkins, (Jonathan) Ta Coumba T. Aiken, Jacques Akins, Lawrence E. Alexander, Tina Allen, Pauline Alley-Barnes, Charles Alston, Frank Alston, Charlotte Amevor, Emma Amos (Levine), Allie Anderson, Benny Andrews, Edmund Minor Archer, Pastor Argudin y Pedroso [as Y. Pedroso Argudin], Anna Arnold, Ralph Arnold, William Artis, Kwasi Seitu Asante [as Kwai Seitu Asantey], Steve Ashby, Rose Auld, Ellsworth Ausby, Henry Avery, Charles Axt, Roland Ayers, Annabelle Bacot, Calvin Bailey, Herman Kofi Bailey, Malcolm Bailey, Annabelle Baker, E. Loretta Ballard, Jene Ballentine, Casper Banjo, Bill Banks, Ellen Banks, John W. Banks, Henry Bannarn, Edward Bannister, Curtis R. Barnes, Ernie Barnes, James MacDonald Barnsley, Richmond Barthé, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Daniel Carter Beard, Romare Bearden, Phoebe Beasley, Falcon Beazer, Arthello Beck, Sherman Beck, Cleveland Bellow, Gwendolyn Bennett, Herbert Bennett, Ed Bereal, Arthur Berry, Devoice Berry, Ben Bey, John Biggers, Camille Billops, Willie Birch, Eloise Bishop, Robert Blackburn, Tarleton Blackwell, Lamont K. Bland, Betty Blayton, Gloria Bohanon, Hawkins Bolden, Leslie Bolling, Shirley Bolton, Higgins Bond, Erma Booker, Michael Borders, Ronald Boutte, Siras Bowens, Lynn Bowers, Frank Bowling, David Bustill Bowser, David Patterson Boyd, David Bradford, Harold Bradford, Peter Bradley, Fred Bragg, Winston Branch, Brumsic Brandon, James Brantley, William Braxton, Bruce Brice, Arthur Britt, James Britton, Sylvester Britton, Moe Brooker, Bernard Brooks, Mable Brooks, Oraston Brooks-el, David Scott Brown, Elmer Brown, Fred Brown, Frederick Brown, Grafton Brown, James Andrew Brown, Joshua Brown, Kay Brown, Marvin Brown, Richard Brown, Samuel Brown, Vivian Browne, Henry Brownlee, Beverly Buchanan, Selma Burke, Arlene Burke-Morgan, Calvin Burnett, Margaret Burroughs, Cecil Burton, Charles Burwell, Nathaniel Bustion, David Butler, Carole Byard, Albert Byrd, Walter Cade, Joyce Cadoo, Bernard Cameron, Simms Campbell, Frederick Campbell, Thomas Cannon (as Canon), Nicholas Canyon, John Carlis, Arthur Carraway, Albert Carter, Allen Carter, George Carter, Grant Carter, Ivy Carter, Keithen Carter, Robert Carter, William Carter, Yvonne Carter, George Washington Carver, Bernard Casey, Yvonne Catchings, Elizabeth Catlett, Frances Catlett, Mitchell Caton, Catti, Charlotte Chambless, Dana Chandler, John Chandler, Robin Chandler, Barbara Chase-Riboud, Kitty Chavis, Edward Christmas, Petra Cintron, George Clack, Claude Clark Sr., Claude Lockhart Clark, Edward Clark, Irene Clark, LeRoy Clarke, Pauline Clay, Denise Cobb, Gylbert Coker, Marion Elizabeth Cole, Archie Coleman, Floyd Coleman, Donald Coles, Robert Colescott, Carolyn Collins, Paul Collins, Richard Collins, Samuel Collins, Don Concholar, Wallace Conway, Houston Conwill, William A. Cooper, Arthur Coppedge, Jean Cornwell, Eldzier Cortor, Samuel Countee, Harold Cousins, Cleo Crawford, Marva Cremer, Ernest Crichlow, Norma Criss, Allan Rohan Crite, Harvey Cropper, Geraldine Crossland, Rushie Croxton, Doris Crudup, Dewey Crumpler, Emilio Cruz, Charles Cullen (White artist), Vince Cullers, Michael Cummings, Urania Cummings, DeVon Cunningham, Samuel Curtis, William Curtis, Artis Dameron, Mary Reed Daniel, Aaron Darling, Alonzo Davis, Bing Davis, Charles Davis, Dale Davis, Rachel Davis, Theresa Davis, Ulysses Davis, Walter Lewis Davis, Charles C. Davis, William Dawson, Juette Day, Roy DeCarava, Avel DeKnight, Beauford Delaney, Joseph Delaney, Nadine Delawrence, Louis Delsarte, Richard Dempsey, J. Brooks Dendy, III (as Brooks Dendy), James Denmark, Murry DePillars, Joseph DeVillis, Robert D'Hue, Kenneth Dickerson, Voris Dickerson, Charles Dickson, Frank Dillon, Leo Dillon, Robert Dilworth, James Donaldson, Jeff Donaldson, Lillian Dorsey, William Dorsey, Aaron Douglas, Emory Douglas, Calvin Douglass, Glanton Dowdell, John Dowell, Sam Doyle, David Driskell, Ulric S. Dunbar, Robert Duncanson, Eugenia Dunn, John Morris Dunn, Edward Dwight, Adolphus Ealey, Lawrence Edelin, William Edmondson, Anthony Edwards, Melvin Edwards, Eugene Eda [as Edy], John Elder, Maurice Ellison, Walter Ellison, Mae Engron, Annette Easley, Marion Epting, Melvyn Ettrick (as Melvin), Clifford Eubanks, Minnie Evans, Darrell Evers, Frederick Eversley, Cyril Fabio, James Fairfax, Kenneth Falana, Josephus Farmer, John Farrar, William Farrow, Malaika Favorite, Elton Fax, Tom Feelings, Claude Ferguson, Violet Fields, Lawrence Fisher, Thomas Flanagan, Walter Flax, Frederick Flemister, Mikelle Fletcher, Curt Flood, Batunde Folayemi, George Ford, Doyle Foreman, Leroy Foster, Walker Foster, John Francis, Richard Franklin, Ernest Frazier, Allan Freelon, Gloria Freeman, Pam Friday, John Fudge, Meta Fuller, Ibibio Fundi, Ramon Gabriel, Alice Gafford, West Gale, George Gamble, Reginald Gammon, Christine Gant, Jim Gary, Adolphus Garrett, Leroy Gaskin, Lamerol A. Gatewood, Herbert Gentry, Joseph Geran, Ezekiel Gibbs, William Giles, Sam Gilliam, Robert Glover, William Golding, Paul Goodnight, Erma Gordon, L. T. Gordon, Robert Gordon, Russell Gordon, Rex Goreleigh, Bernard Goss, Joe Grant, Oscar Graves, Todd Gray, Annabelle Green, James Green, Jonathan Green, Robert Green, Donald Greene, Michael Greene, Joseph Grey, Charles Ron Griffin, Eugene Grigsby, Raymond Grist, Michael Gude, Ethel Guest, John Hailstalk, Charles Haines, Horathel Hall, Karl Hall, Wesley Hall, Edward Hamilton, Eva Hamlin-Miller, David Hammons, James Hampton, Phillip Hampton, Marvin Harden, Inge Hardison, John Hardrick, Edwin Harleston, William Harper, Hugh Harrell, Oliver Harrington, Gilbert Harris, Hollon Harris, John Harris, Scotland J. B. Harris, Warren Harris, Bessie Harvey, Maren Hassinger, Cynthia Hawkins (as Thelma), William Hawkins, Frank Hayden, Kitty Hayden, Palmer Hayden, William Hayden, Vertis Hayes, Anthony Haynes, Wilbur Haynie, Benjamin Hazard, June Hector, Dion Henderson, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, William Henderson, Barkley Hendricks, Gregory A. Henry, Robert Henry, Ernest Herbert, James Herring, Mark Hewitt, Leon Hicks, Renalda Higgins, Hector Hill, Felrath Hines, Alfred Hinton, Tim Hinton, Adrienne Hoard, Irwin Hoffman, Raymond Holbert, Geoffrey Holder, Robin Holder, Lonnie Holley, Alvin Hollingsworth, Eddie Holmes, Varnette Honeywood, Earl J. Hooks, Ray Horner, Paul Houzell, Helena Howard, Humbert Howard, John Howard, Mildred Howard, Raymond Howell, William Howell, Calvin Hubbard, Henry Hudson, Julien Hudson, James Huff, Manuel Hughes, Margo Humphrey, Raymond Hunt, Richard Hunt, Clementine Hunter, Elliott Hunter, Arnold Hurley, Bill Hutson, Zell Ingram, Sue Irons, A. B. Jackson, Gerald Jackson, Harlan Jackson, Hiram Jackson, May Jackson, Oliver Jackson, Robert Jackson, Suzanne Jackson, Walter Jackson, Martha Jackson-Jarvis, Bob James, Wadsworth Jarrell, Jasmin Joseph [as Joseph Jasmin], Archie Jefferson, Rosalind Jeffries, Noah Jemison, Barbara Fudge Jenkins, Florian Jenkins, Chester Jennings, Venola Jennings, Wilmer Jennings, Georgia Jessup, Johana, Daniel Johnson, Edith Johnson, Harvey Johnson, Herbert Johnson, Jeanne Johnson, Malvin Gray Johnson, Marie Johnson-Calloway, Milton Derr (as Milton Johnson), Sargent Johnson, William H. Johnson, Joshua Johnston, Ben Jones, Calvin Jones, Dorcas Jones, Frank A. Jones, Frederick D. Jones, Jr. (as Frederic Jones), Henry B. Jones, Johnny Jones, Lawrence Arthur Jones, Leon Jones, Lois Mailou Jones, Nathan Jones, Tonnie Jones, Napoleon Jones-Henderson, Barbara Jones-Hogu, Jack Jordan, Cliff Joseph, Ronald Joseph, Lemuel Joyner, Edward Judie, Michael Kabu, Arthur Kaufman, Charles Keck, Paul Keene, John Kendrick, Harriet Kennedy, Leon Kennedy, Joseph Kersey; Virginia Kiah, Henri King, James King, Gwendolyn Knight, Robert Knight, Lawrence Kolawole, Brenda Lacy, (Laura) Jean Lacy, Roy LaGrone, Artis Lane, Doyle Lane, Raymond Lark, Carolyn Lawrence, Jacob Lawrence, James Lawrence, Clarence Lawson, Louis LeBlanc, James Lee, Hughie Lee-Smith, Lizetta LeFalle-Collins, Leon Leonard, Bruce LeVert, Edmonia Lewis, Edwin E. Lewis, Flora Lewis, James E. Lewis, Norman Lewis, Roy Lewis, Samella Lewis, Elba Lightfoot, Charles Lilly [as Lily], Arturo Lindsay, Henry Linton, Jules Lion, James Little, Marcia Lloyd, Tom Lloyd, Jon Lockard, Donald Locke, Lionel Lofton, Juan Logan, Bert Long, Willie Longshore, Edward Loper, Francisco Lord, Jesse Lott, Edward Love, Nina Lovelace, Whitfield Lovell, Alvin Loving, Ramon Loy, William Luckett, John Lutz, Don McAllister, Theadius McCall, Dindga McCannon, Edward McCluney, Jesse McCowan, Sam McCrary, Geraldine McCullough, Lawrence McGaugh, Charles McGee, Donald McIlvaine, Karl McIntosh, Joseph Mack, Edward McKay, Thomas McKinney, Alexander McMath, Robert McMillon, William McNeil, Lloyd McNeill, Clarence Major, William Majors, David Mann, Ulysses Marshall, Phillip Lindsay Mason, Lester Mathews, Sharon Matthews, William (Bill) Maxwell, Gordon Mayes, Marietta Mayes, Richard Mayhew, Valerie Maynard, Victoria Meek, Leon Meeks, Yvonne Meo, Helga Meyer, Gaston Micheaux, Charles Mickens, Samuel Middleton, Onnie Millar, Aaron Miller, Algernon Miller, Don Miller, Earl Miller, Eva Hamlin Miller, Guy Miller, Julia Miller, Charles Milles, Armsted Mills, Edward Mills, Lev Mills, Priscilla Mills (P'lla), Carol Mitchell, Corinne Mitchell, Tyrone Mitchell, Arthur Monroe, Elizabeth Montgomery, Ronald Moody, Ted Moody, Frank Moore, Ron Moore, Sabra Moore, Theophilus Moore, William Moore, Leedell Moorehead, Scipio Moorhead, Clarence Morgan, Norma Morgan, Sister Gertrude Morgan, Patricia Morris, Keith Morrison, Lee Jack Morton, Jimmie Mosely, David Mosley, Lottie Moss, Archibald Motley, Hugh Mulzac, Betty Murchison, J. B. Murry, Teixera Nash, Inez Nathaniel, Frank Neal, George Neal, Jerome Neal, Robert Neal, Otto Neals, Robert Newsome, James Newton, Rochelle Nicholas, John Nichols, Isaac Nommo, Oliver Nowlin, Trudell Obey, Constance Okwumabua, Osira Olatunde, Kermit Oliver, Yaounde Olu, Ademola Olugebefola, Mary O'Neal, Haywood Oubré, Simon Outlaw, John Outterbridge, Joseph Overstreet, Carl Owens, Winnie Owens-Hart, Lorenzo Pace, William Pajaud, Denise Palm, James Pappas, Christopher Parks, James Parks, Louise Parks, Vera Parks, Oliver Parson, James Pate, Edgar Patience, John Payne, Leslie Payne, Sandra Peck, Alberto Pena, Angela Perkins, Marion Perkins, Michael Perry, Bertrand Phillips, Charles James Phillips, Harper Phillips, Ted Phillips, Delilah Pierce, Elijah Pierce, Harold Pierce, Anderson Pigatt, Stanley Pinckney, Howardena Pindell, Elliott Pinkney, Jerry Pinkney, Robert Pious, Adrian Piper, Horace Pippin, Betty Pitts, Stephanie Pogue, Naomi Polk, Charles Porter, James Porter, Georgette Powell, Judson Powell, Richard Powell, Daniel Pressley, Leslie Price, Ramon Price, Nelson Primus, Arnold Prince, E. (Evelyn?) Proctor, Nancy Prophet, Ronnie Prosser, William Pryor, Noah Purifoy, Florence Purviance, Martin Puryear, Mavis Pusey, Teodoro Ramos Blanco y Penita, Helen Ramsaran, Joseph Randolph; Thomas Range, Frank Rawlings, Jennifer Ray, Maxine Raysor, Patrick Reason, Roscoe Reddix, Junius Redwood, James Reed, Jerry Reed, Donald Reid, O. Richard Reid, Robert Reid, Leon Renfro, John Rhoden, Ben Richardson, Earle Richardson, Enid Richardson, Gary Rickson, John Riddle, Gregory Ridley, Faith Ringgold, Haywood Rivers, Arthur Roach, Malkia Roberts, Royal Robertson, Aminah Robinson, Charles Robinson, John N. Robinson, Peter L. Robinson, Brenda Rogers, Charles Rogers, Herbert Rogers, Juanita Rogers, Sultan Rogers, Bernard Rollins, Henry Rollins, Arthur Rose, Charles Ross, James Ross, Nellie Mae Rowe, Sandra Rowe, Nancy Rowland, Winfred Russsell, Mahler Ryder, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Charles Sallee, JoeSam., Marion Sampler, Bert Samples, Juan Sanchez, Eve Sandler, Walter Sanford, Floyd Sapp, Raymond Saunders, Augusta Savage, Ann Sawyer, Sydney Schenck, Vivian Schuyler Key, John Scott (Johnny) , John Tarrell Scott, Joyce Scott, William Scott, Charles Searles, Charles Sebree, Bernard Sepyo, Bennie Settles, Franklin Shands, Frank Sharpe, Christopher Shelton, Milton Sherrill, Thomas Sills, Gloria Simmons, Carroll Simms, Jewell Simon, Walter Simon, Coreen Simpson, Ken Simpson, Merton Simpson, William Simpson, Michael Singletary (as Singletry), Nathaniel Sirles, Margaret Slade (Kelley), Van Slater, Louis Sloan, Albert A. Smith, Alfred J. Smith, Alvin Smith, Arenzo Smith, Damballah Dolphus Smith, Floyd Smith, Frank Smith, George Smith, Howard Smith, John Henry Smith, Marvin Smith, Mary T. Smith, Sue Jane Smith, Vincent Smith, William Smith, Zenobia Smith, Rufus Snoddy, Sylvia Snowden, Carroll Sockwell, Ben Solowey, Edgar Sorrells, Georgia Speller, Henry Speller, Shirley Stark, David Stephens, Lewis Stephens, Walter Stephens, Erik Stephenson, Nelson Stevens, Mary Stewart, Renée Stout, Edith Strange, Thelma Streat, Richard Stroud, Dennis Stroy, Charles Suggs, Sharon Sulton, Johnnie Swearingen, Earle Sweeting, Roderick Sykes, Clarence Talley, Ann Tanksley, Henry O. Tanner, James Tanner, Ralph Tate, Carlton Taylor, Cecil Taylor, Janet Taylor Pickett, Lawrence Taylor, William (Bill) Taylor, Herbert Temple, Emerson Terry, Evelyn Terry, Freida Tesfagiorgis, Alma Thomas, Charles Thomas, James "Son Ford" Thomas, Larry Erskine Thomas, Matthew Thomas, Roy Thomas, William Thomas (a.k.a. Juba Solo), Conrad Thompson, Lovett Thompson, Mildred Thompson, Phyllis Thompson, Bob Thompson, Russ Thompson, Dox Thrash, Mose Tolliver, William Tolliver, Lloyd Toone, John Torres, Elaine Towns, Bill Traylor, Charles Tucker, Clive Tucker, Yvonne Edwards Tucker, Charlene Tull, Donald Turner, Leo Twiggs, Alfred Tyler, Anna Tyler, Barbara Tyson Mosley, Bernard Upshur, Jon Urquhart, Florestee Vance, Ernest Varner, Royce Vaughn, George Victory, Harry Vital, Ruth Waddy, Annie Walker, Charles Walker, Clinton Walker, Earl Walker, Lawrence Walker, Raymond Walker [a.k.a. Bo Walker], William Walker, Bobby Walls, Daniel Warburg, Eugene Warburg, Denise Ward-Brown, Evelyn Ware, Laura Waring, Masood Ali Warren, Horace Washington, James Washington, Mary Washington, Timothy Washington, Richard Waters, James Watkins, Curtis Watson, Howard Watson, Willard Watson, Richard Waytt, Claude Weaver, Stephanie Weaver, Clifton Webb, Derek Webster, Edward Webster, Albert Wells, James Wells, Roland Welton, Barbara Wesson, Pheoris West, Lamonte Westmoreland, Charles White, Cynthia White, Franklin White, George White, J. Philip White, Jack White (sculptor), Jack White (painter), John Whitmore, Jack Whitten, Garrett Whyte, Benjamin Wigfall, Bertie Wiggs, Deborah Wilkins, Timothy Wilkins, Billy Dee Williams, Chester Williams, Douglas Williams, Frank Williams, George Williams, Gerald Williams, Jerome Williams, Jose Williams, Laura Williams, Matthew Williams, Michael K. Williams, Pat Ward Williams, Randy Williams, Roy Lee Williams, Todd Williams, Walter Williams, William T. Williams, Yvonne Williams, Philemona Williamson, Stan Williamson, Luster Willis, A. B. Wilson, Edward Wilson, Ellis Wilson, Fred Wilson, George Wilson, Henry Wilson, John Wilson, Stanley C. Wilson, Linda Windle, Eugene Winslow, Vernon Winslow, Cedric Winters, Viola Wood, Hale Woodruff, Roosevelt Woods, Shirley Woodson, Beulah Woodard, Bernard Wright, Dmitri Wright, Estella Viola Wright, George Wright, Richard Wyatt, Frank Wyley, Richard Yarde, James Yeargans, Joseph Yoakum, Bernard Young, Charles Young, Clarence Young, Kenneth Young, Milton Young.

VENICE (Italy). Palazzo Querini Stampalia.
Black SoCal: Art and Practice in an Evolving Landscape.
May 5-November 30, 2015.
Group exhibition. Part of the Venice Biennale 2015. Included: Lyle Ashton Harris, Phoebe Beasley, Sanford Biggers, Mark Bradford, Dan Concholar, Melvin Edwards, Fred Eversley, Frohawk Two Feathers, Todd Gray, David Hammons, Marvin Harden, Maren Hassinger, Suzanne Jackson, Samella Lewis, Kerry James Marshall, Rodney McMillian, Dominque Moody, Senga Nengudi, Kori Newkirk, John Outterbridge, William Pajaud, Tony Ramos, Alison Saar, Betye Saar, Lezley Saar, Henry Taylor, Timothy Washington, Carrie Mae Weems, Kehinde Wiley, Richard Wyatt Jr.

VON BLUM, PAUL.
Recovering the Rubble: African American Assemblage Art in Los Angeles.
2011.
In: The Journal of Pan African Studies Vol.4, no. 5 (September 2011):248-261; color illus. Artists include: Yrneh Gabon Brown, Dale Davis, Charles Dickson, Dominique Moody, Noah Purifoy, Timothy Washington, and Lamonte Westmoreland; passing mention of Haile Gerima, David Hammons, John T. Riddle, and Betye Saar.

WIDENER, DANIEL.
Black Arts West: Culture and Struggle in Postwar Los Angeles.
Durham: Duke University Press, 2010.
xiv, 368 pp., 48 illus. (mostly historical photos), notes, bibliog., index. Chapters: Hollywood scuffle : the Second World War, Los Angeles, and the politics of wartime representation -- The Negro as human being? Desegregation and the Black arts imperative -- Writing Watts : the rise and fall of cultural liberalism -- Notes from the underground : free jazz and Black power in South Los Angeles -- Studios in the street : creative community and visual arts -- The arms of criticism : the cultural politics of urban insurgency -- An intimate enemy : culture and the contradictions of Bradleyism -- How to survive in South Central : Black film as class critique. Artists included (many just brief passing mention): William Alexander, Amiri Baraka, Camille Billops, William Blackman, Gloria Bohanon, Margaret Burroughs, Ben Caldwell, Bernie Casey, Dan Concholar, Houston Conwill, Julie Dash, Alonzo Davis, Dale Davis, Zeinabu Irene Davis, Emory Douglas, Melvin Edwards, Jacqueline Frazier, Alice Taylor Gafford, David Hammons, Suzanne Jackson, Charles Johnson, Doyle Lane, Alile Sharon Larkin, Joe Lewis, Samella Lewis, Constance McClendon, Barbara McCullough, Oscar Micheaux, Willie Middlebrook, P'lla Mills, Lenora Moore, Senga Nengudi, Judson Powell, Noah Purifoy, John T. Riddle, Betye Saar, Van Slater, William E. Smith, Curtis Tann, Ruth Waddy, Timothy Washington, Charles White, Beulah Ecton Woodard, Richard Wyatt, Jr. 8vo (25 x 17 cm.; 9.3 x 6.2 in.), cloth, d.j.